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  • Dec 17, 2013

    Just eight months after announcing a collaboration between Labcyte Inc. and the Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), the partnership has already led to a groundbreaking method for personalized treatment of patients with adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

  • Dec 4, 2013

    Mark Fischer-Colbrie, CEO and President, and Rich Ellson, CTO and a Co-Founder of Labcyte Inc., have been named National EY Entrepreneur Of The Year™ 2013 Life Sciences Finalists. The EY Entrepreneur Of The Year Award is the country’s most prestigious business award for entrepreneurs. The award encourages entrepreneurial activity and recognizes leaders and visionaries who demonstrate innovation, financial success and personal commitment as they create and build world-class businesses.

  • Nov 20, 2013

    Labcyte Inc., the acoustic dispensing company, has been awarded $1 million to create an innovative process to detect cancer-related proteins in samples, with initial work in breast cancer detection.  The unsurpassed precision and accuracy of Labcyte acoustic liquid handling enables biomarker detection by measuring multiple proteins with a MALDI mass spectrometer.  Recent work with the Canary Center at Stanford, also supported by the National Cancer Institute, showed the ability to achieve the sensitivity required for quantifying very small amounts of proteins associated with ovarian cancer. Measuring the amount of multiple proteins, and at lower cost, is an essential step in developing new diagnostic tools for disease treatment and monitoring.

  • Sep 25, 2013

    Labcyte Inc. today announced a collaboration with AstraZeneca to use acoustic dispensing combined with mass spectrometry to greatly advance drug discovery applications. Labcyte, who developed and commercialized acoustic liquid handling, recently developed techniques for the direct loading of samples into mass spectrometers.  This capability creates the potential for high throughput, low cost, label-free analysis.  AstraZeneca is supporting this development effort with the goal of expanding mass spectrometry-based analysis throughout the entire drug discovery and development process. 

  • Jul 24, 2013

    Ernst & Young LLP announced that Mark Fischer-Colbrie, CEO and President, and Rich Ellson, Co-Founder of Labcyte Inc., received the Ernst & Young Entrepreneur Of The Year® 2013 Award in the Life Sciences category in Northern California. The award recognizes outstanding entrepreneurs who demonstrate excellence and extraordinary success in such areas as innovation, financial performance and personal commitment to their businesses and communities. Mark and Rich were selected by an independent panel of judges, and the award was presented at a special gala on June 22nd at The Fairmont San Francisco.

  • May 2, 2013

    How do researchers know whether new molecules will have a positive or negative effect? How much does the technique for moving a liquid affect the results? What about testing compounds for their environmental or health impacts: Is one liquid handling process better than another when it comes to accuracy of the data?

    A paper published by the journal PLOS ONE, May 1, 2013, demonstrates that the technique used to transfer compound solutions does indeed matter. The three researchers who wrote “Dispensing Processes Impact Apparent Biological Activity as Determined by Computational and Statistical Analyses”, (http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062325) conclude that if traditional techniques introduce errors early in the scientific process, the implications are vast.

  • Jan 14, 2013

    Labcyte Inc., who is revolutionizing liquid handling with acoustic dispensing, today announced the latest addition to the Echo® liquid handler product family at the annual Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening conference. This innovative product expands Labcyte’s acoustic dispensing range by utilizing a larger droplet volume to enable more rapid liquid transfers in the microliter range. Acoustic dispensing is significantly enhancing personalized medicine programs, streamlining DNA/RNA diagnostics testing, optimizing drug discovery programs and accelerating life science research. The Echo 525 platform complements the current Labcyte product lines by enabling acoustic assay assembly for larger volume transfers.

  • Jan 9, 2013

    Leading sample management software provider, Titian Software, and Labcyte Inc., have announced a smart integration of the Mosaic™ sample management suite with the Access™ workstation and POD™ automation platform – two Labcyte automation systems incorporating their revolutionary Echo® liquid handler. The combination of Mosaic’s powerful software and flexible integration modules, coupled with the Echo system’s low volume acoustic liquid handling, enable fast, accurate, cost effective and fully traceable automated workflows for high-quality assay development and miniaturization.

  • Jan 8, 2013

    Labcyte Inc., a privately-held company advancing acoustic liquid handling, today announced it has closed a Series D financing led by the healthymagination fund, a part of GE Ventures.  The $5.3 million round also included current Labcyte investors: Abingworth, Alloy Ventures, Cross Atlantic Partners, Delphi Ventures, H&Q Healthcare Investors (NYSE:HQH) and H&Q Life Sciences Investors (NYSE:HQL).

  • Jan 7, 2013

    Labcyte Inc. and the Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM) are collaborating to further the development of personalized medicine in cancer treatment. Labcyte acoustic liquid handling technology has already revolutionized small-molecule research. Now, FIMM, a European leader in advanced research for new cancer therapies, will apply the technology extensively in its personalized medicine programs.

  • Dec 6, 2011

    Roche (six:RO)(six:ROG)(otcqx:RHHBY) and Labcyte Inc. will cooperate around high-speed, miniaturized quantitative PCR (qPCR) to monitor the expression of tens to thousands of genes for therapeutic research. The RealTime ready Cell Lysis kit from Roche enables gene expression directly from cell lysates. Coupled with Echo® liquid handlers and newly-released tissue culture microplates from Labcyte, researchers can greatly simplify high-throughput qPCR analyses. This process can be fully automated using the Access Workstation from Labcyte which integrates the Echo liquid handler with either the LightCycler 480 or LightCycler 1536 Instrument. Gene expression profiles derived in a one-step process directly from cells can now be streamlined into a simple automated workflow, significantly increasing productivity.

  • Nov 8, 2011

    Labcyte Inc. today announced the award of $196K from the National Cancer Institute to fund a collaborative cancer biomarker validation program with the Canary Center of Stanford University. The program will develop an advanced system for early cancer detection by integrating a suite of well-established biotechnologies that includes Labcyte proprietary acoustic liquid handling for arraying and MALDI mass spectrometry preparation.

  • Sep 7, 2011

    Labcyte Inc., a leader in miniaturization technologies for liquid handling, announced today that Thermo Fisher Scientific, the world leader in serving science, is offering the option for customers to receive siRNA (small-interfering RNA) reagent libraries in Labcyte Echo® qualified source plates. This format enables customers to use the Echo liquid handler to transfer RNAi reagents during experiments, eliminating manual handling, reducing volumes, lowering costs and decreasing the risk of contamination.

  • Jul 7, 2011

    Brookhaven National Laboratory researchers are using high-frequency sound waves in conjunction with extremely bright X-rays to get a look at the atomic structures of the complex biological molecules that make our bodies work.

    Like a high-speed X-ray camera, a technique called macromolecular crystallography provides researchers with 3D pictures of the arrangement of atoms in molecules ranging from enzymes to nucleic acids. This is done by making a crystal comprised of many copies of the particular molecule and then bombarding it with beams of high-intensity X-rays that diffract, or bend, as they interact with the electrons in the atoms of the molecule. These X-rays then hit a detector, and are analyzed with a computer program to determine the atomic-level image. Knowing the molecule's structure provides information about its function, which may lead to important clues about how to create effective drugs to prevent or treat a disease.

  • Mar 28, 2011

    Labcyte Inc. today launched a new 1536-well tissue-culture treated microplate for cell-based screening and discovery applications. By enabling cell culture directly in a high-density microplate, this new product expands cell-based assay miniaturization capabilities, such as direct PCR from cell cultures. The exacting rigidity and flatness specifications improve well-to-well reproducibility, resulting in better data while using less reagents for cell-based applications. This 1536-well low-dead-volume microplate is optimized for robotic and automated microplate liquid handling platforms and plate readers.

  • Jan 31, 2011

    Labcyte Inc. today launched a new product for life science research. The Access workstation takes the powerful suite of software applications and automation control proven successful on the POD™ 810 automation platform to the bench top. It combines the revolutionary Echo liquid handler with a high-precision robotic plate handling system to meet critical needs of improving assay results and reducing costs.

  • Dec 14, 2010

    When the revolutionary Echo® acoustic liquid handler is used in the process of discovering potential therapeutics, important drug candidates are identified that are missed using traditional liquid handlers. In a recently issued patent, the global pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca describes the discovery of a novel set of potential cancer therapeutics that was found only when the Echo system was used. Other major pharmaceutical companies have also reported that the Echo liquid handler was a critical platform in discovering drug candidates.

  • Sep 28, 2010

    Labcyte, whose Echo® liquid handling platforms move liquids with sound, today announced the grant of its first patent in China. Patent CN 101035681B describes how acoustic energy is used to assess the characteristics of any fluid in real time to optimize its transfer. The Labcyte acoustic droplet ejection technology offers touchless transfer of a wide variety of liquids, with major benefits in life science applications  including drug discovery, genomics, proteomics and diagnostics.

  • Aug 24, 2010

    Labcyte, whose Echo® liquid handling platforms move liquids with sound , today announced the grant of its 40th US patent. Patent number 7,717,544 describes how in real time acoustic energy is optimized to transfer a droplet of any fluid, even those that are unknown.

  • Jan 26, 2010

    Today Labcyte introduced two pre-calibrated liquid class packages for use with its award-winning Echo® acoustic dispensers and POD™ 810 plate assemblers, which move liquids with sound. This expanded capability will allow its high throughput screening customers to not only transfer compounds in DMSO, but enables the transfer of a wide range of liquids necessary to assemble miniaturized assays for biochemical and cell-based screening.

  • Dec 10, 2008

    Labcyte Inc. announces the issuance of U.S. Patent 7,405,072, which uses the unique advantages of moving liquids with sound to transfer fluids within a sealed container, free from any physical contact. This process can be applied to the testing of pathogens and other dangerous fluids.

  • Nov 5, 2008

    Labcyte Inc., the pioneer in ’touchless’ acoustic transfer of liquids, announces the issuance of U.S. Patent 7,405,395 which exploits the unique advantages of using sound to move liquids. This patent describes the acoustic transfer of fluid droplets into openings less than 300 microns in diameter. “We have exquisite capabilities for directing a droplet exactly to where we want it,” said Chief Technical Officer, Richard Ellson.

  • Jan 27, 2008

    Labcyte Inc. and Allegro Technologies Limited, which conducts business as Deerac Fluidics, announced today that they have reached agreement on the terms for combination of the two companies. Completion of the transaction requires shareholder approval and is expected within one month. Both companies are leaders in precise low-volume liquid dispensing for life science applications.

  • Jan 9, 2008

    Labcyte today announced the introduction of the latest member of its acoustic dispensing family, the Echo® 520 liquid handler, which was developed for the medium-throughput laboratory. The 520 system provides high accuracy and precision transfers of a wide variety of solutions at an appropriate price for the laboratory that needs to transfer as many as 100,000 solutions per day.

  • Nov 15, 2007

    Labcyte Inc. will supply Burnham Institute for Medical Research (Burnham) with more than $2.3 million worth of Echo® liquid handlers for use in screening large biological libraries. The systems will be installed at both the Institute’s LaJolla, (CA) and Lake Nona, Orlando (FL) campuses.

  • Aug 23, 2007

    Labcyte Inc. announced today that the Portrait 630 reagent multi-spotter has been selected by an independent panel and the editors of R&D Magazine as one of the 100 most technologically significant products introduced into the marketplace over the past year.

  • May 22, 2007

    The European Laboratory Robotics Interest Group (ELRIG) has selected the Labcyte Portrait 630 reagent multi-spotter as the winner of its annual Technology Prize, awarded this year at the MipTec 10th Anniversary Conference, held May 8-11, 2007 in Basel, Switzerland. The award recognizes the most innovative product presented at the conference.

  • Mar 15, 2007

    Labcyte Inc. announces the issuance of U.S. Patent 7,185,969 describing microplates used in high-throughput screening that have low electrical resistance. These plates are more easily electrically grounded than traditional plastic microplates and are more easily de-ionized.

  • Feb 26, 2007

    Labcyte Inc., the world leader in acoustic droplet ejection and ultra-low volume liquid handling introduces two new products: The Portrait™ 630 reagent multi-spotter provides automated precision matrix deposition for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry. The Echo® POD integrates the Echo 500 series liquid handler into a fully automated plate preparation platform. Both of these systems incorporate acoustic droplet ejection (ADE), a highly precise technology that uses sound energy to transfer ultra-low volumes of fluids.

  • Oct 17, 2006

    Labcyte Inc. announces the release of two new software products, one to set up dose-response assays and the other to facilitate cherrypicking, that enhance the applications of its award-winning Echo technology. The Echo 550 and Echo 555 liquid handlers use acoustic energy to transfer nanoliter volumes of fluids, eliminating pipettes, pin tools and nozzles. This not only decreases laboratory expenditures dramatically but provides better results with higher precision and fewer false negatives than can be obtained with traditional fluid transfer techniques.

  • Aug 15, 2006

    Labcyte Inc. announces the issuance of U.S. Patent 7,090,333 describing the use of acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) for the preparation of microarrays of proteins and peptides. ADE uses sound to move fluids eliminating all physical contact with the liquid being transferred. This disposes of the need for pin tools, pipettes and nozzles that are currently used to make protein arrays and are known to cause loss of protein due to adsorption on the device surfaces. ADE is also extremely precise with the coefficient of variation, the measure of precision, often less than a few percent even at the nanoliter and picoliter level. ADE can even transfer volumes as low as 25 femtoliters (0.000025 nanoliters).

  • Jul 18, 2006

    Labcyte Inc. today announced that it is one of the first high-tech manufacturing companies in Sunnyvale to be certified as a Green Business. The Green Business Program is a voluntary program that recognizes businesses that commit to full compliance with environmental regulations and take steps to prevent pollution, reduce waste, and conserve resources. The certification recognizes the continuing commitment of Labcyte to conserve resources and reduce waste and pollution.

  • Jul 11, 2006

    Labcyte Inc. announces the issuance of U.S. Patent 7,070,260. This patent describes the use of deionization of microplates and reservoirs to ensure improved precision and accuracy of acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) and other techniques employing the transfer of small fluid droplets. Plastic multi-well microplates such as those commonly used in the discovery of drugs by pharmaceutical companies, often become electrostatically charged due to handling.

  • Mar 21, 2006

    Labcyte Inc. announced today that the Echo 550 Compound Reformatter has been selected by an independent panel and the editors of R&D Magazine as one of the 100 most technologically significant products introduced into the marketplace over the past year.

  • Jan 31, 2006

    Labcyte Inc. announces the issuance of European Patent EP 1337325. This broad patent covers many aspects of acoustic droplet ejection (ADE), an extremely precise and accurate technique that moves small volumes of liquid with sound. The new patent describes the use of ADE to access fluids in multiple reservoirs such as those of multi-well microplates.

  • Jan 22, 2006

    Labcyte today announced the introduction of four new products at the LabAutomation 2006 Exhibition. Foremost is the introduction of the Echo™ 555 liquid handler, a next generation system employing acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) for touchless transfer of liquids. The new Echo 555 has ability to dispense up to 600,000 different compounds in 24 hours.

  • Sep 13, 2005

    Labcyte Inc. has received U.S. Patent 6,938,995 and 6,938,987 its 23rd and 24th patents. These patents further define aspects of the ejection device. The 23rd patent covers the repositioning and refocusing of the transducer to ensure that fluid is efficiently ejected from a plurality of reservoirs, i.e., the wells of a microplate even when the volumes of the reservoirs differ. Richard Ellson, CTO and one of the authors of this patent notes, “This invention is useful in a number of contexts, particularly in the preparation of cherry-picked, multi-well plates and biomolecular arrays. It eliminates the need to have the volume of every well identical as well as the need for the contents to be the same. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the fluid of choice in many high-throughput screening applications, absorbs water very quickly from the atmosphere. The volumes and compositions of the wells change as soon as they are exposed to the laboratory environment. By repositioning the transducer and refocusing the acoustic energy we provide a tremendous increase in flexibility. The ejection device compensates for decreases in volume between wells caused by cherry-picking or evaporation as well as increases in volume due to hydration of wells.”

  • Aug 23, 2005

    Labcyte Inc. has received U.S. Patent 6,932,097, its 22nd patent, which discloses how to use acoustics to monitor the composition and volume of a fluid and maintain those parameters via active fluid supplementation. In many applications, both chemical and biological, fluid composition can change because of evaporation or absorbance of water from the atmosphere.

  • Jul 25, 2005

    Labcyte Inc. announced today it has closed its Series C financing with all previous major investors and three new firms participating.  The round was led by Cross Atlantic Partners and included Hambrecht & Quist Capital Management LLC and the Bay Area Equity Fund, a fund managed by JPMorgan, as new investors.  Dr. Sandra Panem of Cross Atlantic  Partners will join the company’s board of directors. Existing investors Abingworth Management,  Alloy Ventures, Delphi Ventures and the Sprout Group also participated in the $21 million financing.

  • Jul 19, 2005

    Labcyte Inc. has received U.S. Patent 6,916,083, its 21st patent, which discloses how to control the flow of a coupling fluid to provide efficient transfer of acoustic energy into a multi-well plate. The Labcyte® Echo™ 550 compound reformatter applies focused acoustic pulses to liquid in the individual wells of a multiwell plate in order to touchlessly move that liquid to a destination plate. This nanoliter transfer eliminates the serial dilutions commonly used in high-throughput screening (HTS) laboratories saving time and money while improving results and ending crosscontamination. In order to transfer quickly from a source plate to a destination plate, the transducer of the Echo 550 must move rapidly. This patent resolves problems encountered when rapidly moving a transducer such as the introduction of air bubbles and inconsistent coupling fluid flow.

  • Jun 16, 2005

    This week the National Institutes for Health announced that Vanderbilt University was one of the centers chosen for the new Molecular Libraries Screening Centers Network (MLSCN), part of the NIH Roadmap Initiative.

    “Molecular library screening will give academic researchers the ability to combine high throughput approaches with unique biology to rapidly find small molecule modulators of targets and processes,” said Dr. Dave Weaver, Director of the Molecular Recognition and Screening Facility at the Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology and a Research Assistant Professor of Pharmacology. “Only in the past few years has high-throughput screening become available to universities. Now academic researchers can dramatically advance their research in diverse areas from protein-protein interactions to systems biology covering many therapeutic indications. 

    "One important component of our high throughput screening is the Labcyte Echo 550 compound reformatter. The Echo 550 moves liquids with sound. This new instrument precisely transfers nanoliter volumes of chemical solutions.”

  • Jun 1, 2005

    Labcyte Inc. has received its 19th patent and 20th patents. U.S. Patent 6,893,115 discloses the use of frequency and acoustic pulse time adjustments to maintain consistent droplet size when solvent composition varies. This technology is one of the factors contributing to the high reproducibility of the Echo™ 550 compound reformatter, which transfers low nL amounts of library compound solutions. The Echo 550 is now being used by six major pharmaceutical companies to eliminate the need for intermediate dilutions, disposable tips and washing steps involved in preparation of assay plates.

  • Mar 22, 2005

    Labcyte Inc. today received its 18th patent. U.S. Patent 6,869,551 discloses the use of focused acoustic energy to create particles with a very narrow distribution of size. Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) of a solution containing dissolved materials produces these mono-dispersed particles. In addition, multi-layer particles form when droplets are ejected from layered immiscible fluids. ADE droplets solidify via solvent evaporation, exposure to an anti-solvent or via chemical processes such as polymerization. In contrast to other techniques, this method is compatible with volatile and near saturation solutions. It also eliminates the need for a nozzle and thus does not suffer from the clogging that makes other approaches unreliable.

  • Feb 15, 2005

    Labcyte Inc. announced today that it has been granted its 17th patent. US Patent 6,855,925 describes the deposition of droplets of low volatility fluids onto surfaces as a precursor to analyses. This technology facilitates higher-resolution imaging by delivering reagents in small droplets of fluids less prone to evaporation.

  • Feb 1, 2005

    Labcyte Inc. announced today that it has been granted its 16th patent, US 6,849,423, for the rapid and gentle transfer of cells and particles, including beads, with acoustic energy. This patent describes the use of focused acoustics to move cells and particles between microplates and as well as to form arrays of single living cells efficiently, quickly, flexibly and economically. Focused acoustic technology is the basis of the award-winning Labcyte® Echo™ 550 compound reformatter and the Echo™ 380 auditor shown for the first time this week at LabAutomation 2005.

  • Oct 27, 2004

    Labcyte Inc. announced today that it has been granted US patent 6,802,593 for rapidly transferring fluids from a multi-well plate with acoustic energy. This patent describes the use of focused acoustics for the transfer of liquids at speeds greater than one second per well.

  • Sep 30, 2004

    Labcyte Inc. announced today the purchase of two Labcyte® Echo 550 compound reformatters by the Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (NYSE: BMY) as a follow-up to the completion of their successful Beta test program. The Echo 550 Compound Reformatter transfers liquids with sound. This direct acoustic transfer is extremely accurate and precise with coefficient of variation values of less than 5%. The award-winning system is designed for the replication and reformatting of compound libraries, as well as plate compression or expansion from 384- and 1536-well microplates.

  • Jul 1, 2004

    Labcyte Inc. announced today that the Echo 550 Compound Reformatter has been selected by an independent panel and the editors of R&D Magazine as one of the 100 most technologically significant products introduced into the marketplace over the past year.

  • Jun 10, 2004

    Labcyte Inc. announced the award of its eleventh U.S. patent with the issuance of its third patent of 2004. This extends its intellectual property for using focused acoustics to manipulate liquids for a variety of life science applications. These patents describe dispensing picoliter droplets to produce high density arrays on porous surfaces, as well as the use of focused acoustics to transfer solutions such as MALDI matrix and to introduce samples into microfluidic devices.

  • May 3, 2004

    Velocity11 and Labcyte Inc. announced a collaboration on a fully automated Assay Assembly system for sample inventory management and distribution.  The Assay Assembly system combines the plate storage and handling capabilities of Velocity11’s BioCel® Laboratory Automation platform with the nanoliter transfer technology of the Labcyte® Echo 550.

  • Dec 23, 2003

    Labcyte Inc. announced today it has been awarded its eighth U.S. patent, extending its intellectual property to cover use of focused acoustics to dispense a variety of liquids from numerous reservoirs, such as microplate wells.  U.S. Patent 6,666,541, entitled “Acoustic Ejection of Fluids from a Plurality of Reservoirs“, describes technology Labcyte believes will be important for precisely transferring nanoliter- and picoliter-sized samples to assay plates and arrays for a wide variety of life science applicatio

  • Nov 4, 2003

    Picoliter Inc. and Labcyte, LLC announced today that they have merged into a new Delaware corporation, Labcyte Inc.   Picoliter Inc. is based on new technology for using focused acoustics (ultrasound) to transfer nanoliter and picoliter volumes of fluids for life science applications.  Labcyte LLC provides plastic labware and automated systems for moving microwell plates and dispensing liquids.

  • Nov 4, 2003

    Labcyte Inc. announced that its seventh U.S. patent 6,642,061 entitled “Use of Immiscible Fluids in Droplet Ejection Through Application of Focused Acoustic Energy” issued today. This technology has applications in the use of multiple layer droplets for miniaturized arrayed assays.

  • Sep 19, 2003

    Picoliter Inc. announced today it has been awarded four additional U.S. patents, which extend its intellectual property to include the use of focused acoustic energy (ultrasound) to create miniaturized assay arrays, to generate particles for pharmaceutical and other applications, and to prepare samples for mass spectrometers.   Picoliter believes the inventions described in these patents will enable researchers to dramatically improve liquid handling in a broad set of life science applications.

  • Jul 16, 2003

    Picoliter Inc. announced today that it has been awarded its first U.S. Patent (No. 6,416,164) entitled “Acoustic Ejection of Fluids Using Large F-number Focusing Elements”. The patent broadly claims a device and method for dispensing droplets using acoustic energy generated by an external source and focused with a lens having a relatively large "F-number”.  The use of such lenses allows for precise dispensing of droplets from containers of varying size and shape, including "tall" containers in which the depth of the fluid can be significantly greater than the width of the container.  Examples of such containers include commercial microplates, which are commonly used in high throughput screening, diagnostics and life science research.

  • Apr 23, 2003

    Picoliter Inc. announced today it has been awarded a second patent, extending its intellectual property to include using focused acoustics to form droplets consisting of more than one liquid layer.  U.S. Patent (No. 6,548,308) entitled “Focused Acoustic Energy Method and Device for Generating Droplets of Immiscible Fluids” describes technology Picoliter believes will be important for controlling evaporation in low volume assays and simulating biological systems.