Biochemical Assays
Cell-based Assays
HTS and Secondary Screening
Protein Crystallography
Sample Management
Personalized Medicine
Functional Screening / DSRT
Single-cell Genomics
Synthetic Biology
Gene Expression
Single-cell Genomics


Echo® 525 Liquid Handler
Echo® 555 Liquid Handler
Echo® 550 Liquid Handler
Echo® 520 Liquid Handler
Access™ Laboratory Workstation
POD™ Automation Platform
Tempo™ Automation Control Software
Echo® Array Maker
Echo® Cherry Pick
Echo® Combination Screen
Echo® Dose-Response
Echo® Plate Audit
Echo® Plate Reformat
Echo® Qualified Microplates
Labcyte® Assay Microplates
MicroClime® Environmental Lid
Echo® Qualified Reservoir


Echo® Acoustic Liquid Handling
Dynamic Fluid Analysis™
Direct Dilution

News / Events

Labcyte – San Diego 2017
Labcyte BLOG
Upcoming Events
Press Releases
Labcyte in the News
Labcyte Community


JALA Special Issue
Application Notes
Customer Profiles
Core Labs


User Guides*
Quick Start Guides*
Specification Sheets
Site Prep Guides
Integration Models
Service and Maintenance
Request Information


About Us
Echo® Acoustic Technology
Leadership Team
Contact and Location
Privacy Policy

Traditional Serial Dilution vs. Echo Direct Dilution

HOME | TECHNOLOGY | Direct Dilution

Direct Dilution

The generation of IC50 or EC50 data is a key component of drug discovery processes. The setup of IC50 curves have traditionally been a liquid handling challenge that is prone to error. The use of the Echo Liquid Handler eliminates these errors, enabling discoveries that would have been missed by other methods. By coupling the Echo Liquid Handler with Labcyte Automation and Echo Software Applications, IC50 data is generated more accurately and more efficiently than traditional methods.

Traditional Method: Serial Dilution

Traditionally, scientists have approached the generation of IC50 data in similar manners. Starting with a high concentration of drug in DMSO or buffer, they create their initial stock and then dilute across a series of wells. A small amount of the high concentration well is transferred to the next well, containing buffer or solvent. The process is repeated, resulting in each successive well at a concentration increment lower than the previous well. As this technique has been the only available approach to IC50 curve generation, the inherent drawbacks for this method are not often considered. The risks in this technique include:

Error Propagation
Small errors in pipetting are exacerbated by a serial dilution process. A 10% error in pipetting accuracy or precision could result in a 40-fold concentration error at the opposite end of a 12-point IC50 curve.
Tip Contact
Plastic disposable tips in contact with samples has been shown to result in interference with an assay.
Compound Precipitation
Many serial dilution techniques start with a compound in DMSO diluted into buffer. As this first step is the highest concentration of compound, the change in buffer solution could cause material to precipitate out of solution. Subsequent dilution of the first sample in a serial dilution method may transfer the compound at a far lower concentration than anticipated.
Compound Waste
To avoid the above scenario, some will serially dilute compound into the same storage solution (usually DMSO). The generated IC50 curve DMSO is then added in smaller volumes to an assay. While this method reduces the risk of compound precipitation, it usually requires far higher volumes of compound to be used in order to produce the full curve. This results in waste of compounds that may be unique or not readily available, and increased DMSO waste and disposal costs.

Major drawbacks of error in the serial dilution process are readily apparent. Each risk may result in compounds appearing to be less potent in a screening method. For example, in an inhibition study, the errors in a serial dilution process may cause the researcher to incorrectly rank factors causing potency, dismiss potential drug candidates, or dismiss entire classes of compounds that may be potential drug candidates. In ADME Tox studies, serial dilution process errors may result in compounds appearing less toxic, resulting in the carrying forward of a drug candidate that is destined to fail trials. As there is so much at stake in the IC50 curve generation process, it is key that the experiment is set up correctly.

Direct Dilution with the Echo Liquid Handler

Direct dilution is the process by which Echo Liquid Handlers generates the IC50 curve without requiring tips or a serial dilution process. This straightforward process can generate a 12-point IC50 curve from a single source, using an intermediate plate.

Example: 12 point dilution series with a starting concentration of 10 mM stock

Desired Concentration Intermediate Plate Volume Destination Plate Volume DMSO Backfill Final Volume
10 µM 0 nL 75 nL 0 nL 75 nL
3.3 µM 0 nL 25 nL 50 nL 75 nL
1 µM 0 nL 7.5 nL 67.5 nL 75 nL
0.33 µM 0 nL 2.5 nL 72.5 nL 75 nL
100 nM 250 nL stock + 24.75 nL DMSO 75 nL 0 nL 75 nL
33.3 nM 250 nL stock + 24.75 nL DMSO 25 nL 50 nL 75 nL
10 nM 250 nL stock + 24.75 nL DMSO 7.5 nL 67.5 nL 75 nL
3.3 nM 250 nL stock + 24.75 nL DMSO 2.5 nL 72.5 nL 75 nL
1 nM 25 nL stock + 25 nL DMSO 75 nL 0 nL 75 nL
0.33 nM 25 nL stock + 25 nL DMSO 25 nL 50 nL 75 nL
0.1 nM 25 nL stock + 25 nL DMSO 7.5 nL 67.5 nL 75 nL
0 0 0 75 nL 75 nL

In the example above, the first four concentrations are made directly from the stock source plate. The next four concentrations are made by performing a 1:100 dilution of the stock into an intermediate plate, and transferring out of that intermediate plate to the destination plate. The final three concentrations are made by performing a 1:1000 dilution of the stock into the intermediate plate and transferring to the destination plate. As all transfers are performed with the same 2.5 nL increment at varying numbers of droplets, precision in concentrations are independent of the previous transfer step.

Echo Software for Direct Dilution

The Echo Dose-Response application simplifies protocol creation for direct dilution. A wizard guides researchers through the mapping of transfers from stock and intermediate concentrations to create curves of varying concentration range. The entire workflow can be managed in a single protocol, and samples may originate from a single source plate or picked according to a file. The built-in simulator shows the creation of each curve for a quick verification of the transfer protocol.

Labcyte Automation systems are a proven solution for efficient, high-throughput IC50 assay production. On any Labcyte Access Laboratory Workstation or POD Automation Platform, Tempo Automation Software can be used to build automated routines directly from any Echo Dose-Response protocol. All plate movements and back-fill steps are automatically prioritized and scheduled by the software — not the operator.