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ARTICLES and Other Media

featuring the Echo® Acoustic Technology

121 Total Articles and Other Media
HOME | RESOURCES | Articles

ARTICLES

121 Total Articles and Other Media

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TITLES and AUTHORS Year Link PDF + Abstract
  • High-throughput Miniaturized Quantitative PCR with the Echo® 525 Liquid Handler Glazer C, Eaton B

    Institution: Labcyte Inc., Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, FIMM, University of Helsinki

    Publication: APPLICATION NOTE - G104

    2013 PDF abstract

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a prevalent tool spanning many phases of drug discovery. Advances in qPCR detection to enable 384- and 1536-well microplate formats have incentivized researchers to miniaturize qPCR assays as a means to offset the costs of increasing throughput. To significantly reduce qPCR volumes and maintain data quality, the liquid handling methods employed for such low-volume transfers must be precise and accurate. Tipless, touchless acoustic droplet ejection with the Echo liquid handler eliminates the cost of disposable tips or tip-wash cycles and simplifies assay setup by eliminating dilution steps. This study utilized the Echo 525 liquid handler to assemble low-volume qPCR assays at speeds that keep pace with high-throughput demands.  Precision for the resulting quantifi cation curves across 384- and 1536-well plates was excellent with standard deviations less than 0.25 and CVs less than 2.0%. Tests with positive and negative controls dispensed into alternating wells revealed zero cross-contamination. The results demonstrated the Echo 525 liquid handler effectively miniaturized reaction volumes for high-throughput qPCR in both 384- and 1536-well formats.

    Publication / Type:
    APPLICATION NOTE - G104
    Related Subject:
    High-throughput Miniaturized Quantitative PCR Echo® 525 Liquid Handler
  • Miniaturization of Cytochrome P450 Time-dependent Inhibition Screening Using the Echo® Liquid Handler Wang J

    Institution: Labcyte Inc.

    Publication: APPLICATION NOTE - D102

    2013 PDF abstract

    Early assessment of the ADMET (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity) properties of drug candidates has become a critical part of modern drug discovery. The frequent failure of compounds due to poor ADMET properties necessitates earlier profi ling of ADMETcharacterizations. As a large number of compounds are screened for ADMET properties against various cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes on a regular basis, miniaturization and automation of ADMET assays have become one of the top priorities to manage the cost and labor. The time-dependent CYP inhibition assay is one of the most important ADMET assays which identifies drug candidates that may have potential for undesirable drug-drug interactions or sub-optimal pharmacokinetic properties. Here, we present a miniaturized, simplifi ed and automated methodusing the Echo 555 liquid handler to evaluate compounds with time-dependent CYP inhibition potential with RapidFire/MS. The Echo 555 liquid handler can precisely and accurately transfer nanoliter droplets completely contact free to avoid any possible contamination. The rapid transferof various aqueous reagents enables the evaluation of ADMET properties of a large number of compounds. In this application note, we discuss assay results from miniaturized time-dependent inhibition assays. The time-dependent inhibition for two of the most abundant CYP enzymes, CYP3A4 and 1A2, were evaluated. The results from the Echo liquid handler method demonstrate fast, reliable and accurate IC50 values.

    Publication / Type:
    APPLICATION NOTE - D102
    Related Subject:
    Cytochrome P450 Time-dependent Inhibition Screening Echo® Liquid Handler
  • High-throughput Miniaturization of Cytochrome P450 Time-dependent Inhibition Screening Using the Echo® 525 Liquid Handler Wang J

    Institution: Labcyte Inc.

    Publication: APPLICATION NOTE - D101

    2013 PDF abstract

    Early assessment of the ADMET (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity) properties of drug candidates has become a critical part of modern drug discovery. The frequent failure of compounds due to poor ADMET properties necessitates earlier profi ling of ADMET characterizations. As a large number of compounds are screened for ADMET properties against various cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes on a regular basis, miniaturization and automation of ADMET assays have become one of the top priorities to manage the cost and labor. The time-dependent CYP inhibition assay is one of the most important ADMET assays which identifies drug candidates that may have potential for undesirable drug-drug interactions or sub-optimal pharmacokinetic properties. Here, we present a miniaturized, simplifi ed and automated method using the Echo 525 liquid handler to evaluate compounds with time-dependent CYP inhibition potential with RapidFire/MS. The Echo 525 liquid handler can precisely and accurately transfer nanoliter droplets completely contact free to avoid any possible contamination. The rapid transfer of various aqueous reagents enables the evaluation of ADMET properties of a large number of compounds. In this application note, we discuss assay results from miniaturized time-dependent inhibition assays. The time-dependent inhibition for two of the most abundant CYP enzymes, CYP3A4 and 1A2, were evaluated. The results from the Echo liquid handler method demonstrate fast, reliable and accurate IC50 values.

    Publication / Type:
    APPLICATION NOTE - D101
    Related Subject:
    High-throughput Miniaturization Cytochrome P450 Time-dependent Inhibition Screening Echo® 525 Liquid Handler
  • High Throughput Miniaturization of Cytochrome P450 Inhibition Screening Using the Echo® Liquid Handler Wang J, Barco J

    Institution: Labcyte Inc.

    Publication: Application Note D100

    2013 PDF abstract

    Early assessment of ADMET properties (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) of drug candidates has become an essential component of modern drug discovery screening to select the overall best scaffolds or leads to the pre-clinical candidate stage. One of the most important ADMET characterizations is the interaction between drug candidates and various human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are the largest group of drug-metabolizing enzymes and their potential interactions with drug candidates could lead to idiosyncratic toxicity. CYP3A4 is the most abundant cytochrome P450 enzyme in the liver and plays a major role in metabolizing xenobiotics. The Promega P450-Glo™ CYP3A4 Assay (Luciferin-IPA) offers a sensitive, specifi c and high-throughput luminescence assay for the examination of CYP3A4 inhibition. Here, we demonstrate the miniaturization and optimization of the P450-Glo™ Assay with pooled Human Liver Microsomes (HLM) using the Echo 555 liquid handler.

    Publication / Type:
    Application Note D100
    Related Subject:
    High Throughput Miniaturization Cytochrome P450 Inhibition Screening Echo® Liquid Handler
  • Miniaturized HTRF® Assays Using the Echo® Liquid Handler Edwards B, Tang N, Nakamura M

    Institution: Labcyte Inc., Cisbio, BMG Labtech

    Publication: Application Note C100

    2013 PDF abstract

    Cisbio’s HTRF assay technology has a wide range of applications in cell-based and biochemical assays. These assays are readily adaptable to high-throughput screening in 384-well and 1536-well formats. The Echo liquid handler enabled the miniaturization of HTRF assays to 2 μL assay volumes in 1536-well microplates. Reagents and compounds were transferred at 2.5 nL increments, which enabled fl exibility in assay setup and reduced reagent costs. The beta2 adrenergic G-protein-coupled receptor was used as a model target to verify performance of a miniaturized competitive binding assay and miniaturized cAMP assay.

    Publication / Type:
    Application Note C100
    Related Subject:
    Miniaturized HTRF® Assays Echo® Liquid Handler
  • Nanoliter Scale High-Throughput Protein Crystallography Screening with the Echo® Liquid Handler Edwards B, Harris D, Datwani S, Barco J

    Institution: Labcyte Inc.

    Publication: APPLICATION NOTE - P100

    2013 PDF abstract

    The Echo® liquid handler enables protein crystal formation with sitting drop volumes as small as 50 nL. Nanoliter volumes of protein and crystallography reagents can be transferred into sitting drop wells of crystallography plates. Precise and accurate drop placement eliminates crosscontamination and ensures drop-on-drop placement for blending protein and crystallography solutions. Precise transfer of reagents ensures repeatable crystallization trials. With Dynamic Fluid Analysis™ only a single fl uid class setting is needed to transfer all crystallography sparse matrix reagents—eliminating the need for multiple calibrations or repeated optimization of fluid class settings. In addition to transferring sparse matrix reagents, the Echo liquid handler can also use Dynamic Fluid Analysis to transfer high concentrations of stock reagents on-the-fly, which allows operators to create optimization grid screens without individually making all variations.

    Publication / Type:
    APPLICATION NOTE - P100
    Related Subject:
    Nanoliter Scale High-Throughput Protein Crystallography Screening Echo® Liquid Handler
  • Sub-Microliter Quantitative Real-Time PCR from Whole Blood Using Acoustic Transfer with the Echo® Liquid Handler Ghislain L, Glazer C, Eaton B and Datwani S

    Institution: Labcyte Inc.

    Publication: POSTER, SLAS 2013

    2013 PDF abstract

    Enabling a stream-lined high-throughput quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) from whole blood and blood products has been a challenge due to limitations in sample prep, DNA and RNA half-life in blood, and reagent volumes needed for high sensitivity. Incorporating state-of-the-art blood kit technology enables single-step extraction of genomic DNA to PCR and provides all of the reagents necessary to rapidly extract genomic DNA from whole blood and amplify targets of interest by PCR. Acoustic liquid handling technology integrated with thermal cyclers that operate with higher-density plate formats (e.g. 1536) addresses the remaining issues by miniaturizing reaction volumes, minimizing reagent waste and reducing experimental error. The Echo® liquid handler zero cross-contamination capability with built-in quality control is a significant advantage for this application. We present data that showcases highly reproducible acoustic transfer of blood, serum and plasma with excellent accuracy and precision in both volume transfer and positional placement. Both 1536-well and 384-well reactions are demonstrated at 2000 nL and then 1536-well reactions are miniaturized down to a volume of 250 nL. This workflow is then implemented with minimal sample handling to produce highly reproducible results that can be potentially be applied in a high throughput automated workflow.

    Publication / Type:
    POSTER, SLAS 2013
    Related Subject:
    Sub-Microliter Quantitative Real-Time PCR Acoustic Transfer Echo® Liquid Handler
  • Miniaturized and Automated Cisbio HTRF Assays with the Echo® Liquid Handler and BMG PHERAstar FS Edwards B, Tang N, Nakamura M, Eaton B, Datwani S and Barco J

    Institution: Labcyte Inc., Cisbio and BMG LABTECH GmbH

    Publication: POSTER, SLAS 2013

    2013 PDF abstract

    Cisbio’s HTRF assays are amenable to high-throughput screening and miniaturization: the add-and-read format improves ease of use, time and cost savings. Currently, most assays are performed in 384-well and 1536-well formats, at assay volumes of 20 μL and 10 μL, respectively. The Echo® liquid handlers from Labcyte use acoustic energy to transfer reagents in a non-contact manner. The low volume increment of the Echo liquid handler enabled an investigation of further miniaturization of HTRF assays to as low as 2 μL. Data collection with the BMG PHERAstar FS reader demonstrates consistent assay performance at the lower volumes. This further reduces per-well costs and enables larger screens to be performed in a cost-effective manner.

    Publication / Type:
    POSTER, SLAS 2013
    Related Subject:
    Cisbio HTRF Assays Echo® Liquid Handler BMG PHERAstar FS
  • A New Approach to Time-Dependent Cytochrome P450 Inhibition Assay Using the Echo® Liquid Handler Wang J, Eaton B, Datwani S, Barco J, Wu S, Zhang W and Lee J

    Institution: Labcyte Inc., Quintara Discovery, Celsis IVT

    Publication: POSTER, SLAS 2013

    2013 PDF abstract

    Early assessment of the ADMET (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion and Toxicity) properties of drug candidates has become a critical part of modern drug discovery. The frequent failure of compounds due to poor ADMET properties necessitates earlier profiling of ADMET characterizations. As a large number of compounds are screened for ADMET properties against various cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes on a regular basis, miniaturization and automation of ADMET assays have become a top priority to manage the cost and labor. The time-dependent CYP450 inhibition assay (TDI) is one of the most important ADMET assays which identifies drug candidates that may have sub-optimal pharmacokinetic properties or potential for undesirable drug-drug interactions. Here, we present a miniaturized, simplified and automated method using the Echo® liquid handler to evaluate time-dependent CYP inhibition potential with RapidFire/MS (RF/MS). The results from the new method generate fast, reliable and accurate IC50 results while reducing reagent costs by 90%.

    Publication / Type:
    POSTER, SLAS 2013
    Related Subject:
    Time-Dependent Cytochrome P450 Inhibition Assay Echo® Liquid Handler
  • Next Generation Sequencing Sample Preparation Utilizing the Echo® Liquid Handler Lee H, Lee D and Chan K

    Institution: Labcyte Inc., SeqMatic LLC.

    Publication: POSTER, SLAS 2013

    2013 PDF abstract

    The advent of Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled researchers to overcome the limitations in resolution, scalability, and throughput experienced with capillary electrophoresis-based Sanger sequencing. While these technological advances have lowered the cost of sequencing, upstream library preparation remains a significant bottleneck and a prime target for automated liquid handling. The ability of Echo® liquid handlers to acoustically transfer samples and reagents without tips or contact provides an efficient, contamination-free solution for genomic library preparation. The precision and accuracy of sub-microliter transfers from any microplate well to any microplate well accelerates and improves library pooling and normalization with less setup time in comparison to methods utilizing manual pipetting. In this work, the Echo 555 liquid handler was used to prepare libraries produced from E.coli for sequencing with the Illumina® MiSeq sequencer.

    Publication / Type:
    POSTER, SLAS 2013
    Related Subject:
    Sequencing Sample Echo® Liquid Handler
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